Satellite Insar Data

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Satellite radar data for surface deformation monitoring are gaining increasing attention, and not only within the oil and gas community. They provide a powerful tool for remotely measuring extremely small surface displacements over large areas and long periods of time, without requiring the installation of in-situ equipment. However, apart from remote sensing and radar specialists, only a relatively small number of geoscientists and engineers understand how a radar sensor orbiting the Earth at about 7 km/s from 700km above the Earth's surface can actually measure ground displacements of a fraction of a centimetre. This book provides a step-by-step introduction to satellite radar sensors, SAR imagery, SAR interferometry and advanced InSAR techniques. Rather than a tutorial for remote sensing specialists, the book starts from very basic concepts and explains in plain language the most important ideas related to SAR data processing and why geoscientists and engineers should take a vested interest in this new information source. Contents 1 Motivation 9 2 Satellite radar images 13 2.1 Key features of satellite radar systems 13 2.2 Amplitude and phase information: the magic of complex numbers 14 2.3 Range resolution, signal compression and formation of a range line 20 2.4 Acquisition geometry and synthetic aperture 24 2.5 SAR images 27 2.6 Geometric distortions and satellite orbit 31 2.7 Scattering mechanisms 34 2.8 What we have learned so far 39 3 SAR interferometry 41 3.1 Measuring phase variations 41 3.2 Modelling the interferometric phase 43 3.3 SAR interferograms 50 3.4 Phase decorrelation and coherence maps 54 3.5 Atmospheric effects 61 3.6 Phase Unwrapping 66 3.7 What we have learned so far 69 4 Multi-interferogram techniques 71 4.1 Some history 71 4.2 The Permanent Scatterer (PS) technique: PSInSAR 74 4.3 SBAS and other multi-interferogram techniques 81 4.4 SqueeSAR 85 4.5 Estimation of 2-dimensional displacement fields 91 4.6 Precision assessment and validation 94 4.7 What we have learned so far 100 5 Oil and gas applications 101 5.1 Surface expression of reservoir dynamics: an opportunity more than a problem 101 5.2 Inversion of surface deformation data 107 5.3 A case study in Middle East 115 5.4 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) 119 5.5 Underground Gas Storage (UGS) 124 5.6 Off-shore applications 127 5.7 What we have learned so far 129 6 Conclusions and future trends 131 6.1 InSAR applications 131 6.2 Artificial Reflectors 136 6.3 Satellite archives, historical analyses and monitoring projects 139 6.4 New trends and why we should care 143

Auteur / Merk Ferretti, Alessandro
ISBN / EAN 9789073834712

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